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References and PD Resources

for Learner Assessment

This section includes resources that informed this section as well as resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.

A webinar on setting up e-portfolios on the EduLINC Moodle site.

LearnIT2teach. (2020, April 27). PBLA digital portfolios in EduLINC [Video]. YouTube.

This document presents the Canadian descriptive scale of language ability in ESL. It describes a continuum of language ability across 12 benchmarks and 4 skills. It serves as a national standard for curriculum planning as well as a reference for teaching/learning, programming, and assessment.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). Canadian Language Benchmarks: English as a second language for adults.

This document includes an orientation to the CLB document. Specifically, see pages 24–28 on Assessment and Portfolio Based Language Assessment (PBLA).

This document can be downloaded from the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks website or accessed on Tutela. ESL for Adult Literacy Learners (ALL) is a benchmarking document that serves as a standard for curriculum planning and a reference for teaching, learning, and assessement of adult ESL literacy learners.

Part 1 addresses key issues related to ESL literacy instruction and includes a series of tables identifying progressions of skills, knowledge, and strategies in three stages: emerging, building, and expanding.

Part 2 is the benchmarking portion. It includes descriptions of 5 levels of ESL literacy Reading and ESL literacy Writing, relating each of these to the CLB benchmarks.

Part 3 is a series of tables describing a continuum of ESL literacy skills, addressing 9 key strands of literacy development for Reading and Writing.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2015). Canadian Language Benchmarks: ESL for adult literacy learners.

This document can be downloaded for free from the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks website. This is a support kit for the CLB ESL for ALL benchmarking document. Specificallly, see the sections assessing literacy learners (p. 63–71); giving feedback to literacy learners (p.72–80); and multilevel instruction and assessment (p .81–86).

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2017). CLB: ESL for ALL support kit.

This version of the PBLA Guidelines replaces 2014 and 2017 documents. The electronic platform includes the following:

  • Portfolios: This section includes required components, expectations, feedback and assessments, and portfolio artefacts. It also includes sample forms, inventory sheets, and considerations for multilevel classes.
  • Reporting: This section includes making judgments about portfolio contents, learner progress reports, reporting periods, and a variety of reporting forms.
  • Accountability: This section includes administrator tips for supporting PBLA implementation.
  • Resources: This section includes a series of multilevel module plans that include skill-building activities, skill-using activities, and PBLA Assessement tasks. Also included is a list of PBLA training courses.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2019). PBLA practice guidelines.

The PBLA Practice Guidelines can also be accessed in PDF format:

This video gives an overview of the features of the Avenue ePortfolio.

Learnit2teach. (2020, December). Avenue ePortfolio demonstration with Q & A [Video]. YouTube.

This online text provides an excellent overview of assessment in CLB-aligned classrooms.

Chapter 1 distinguishes between assessment for learning and assessment of learning and includes strategies and practices for assessment for learning in ESL classes.

Chapter 2 discusses how to plan for assessment in the CLB-aligned classroom.

Chapter 3 describes how to design productive skills assessment tasks (Speaking/Writing). It covers choosing a task type, aligning the task to the CLB, selecting appropriate criteria, and determining what represents success. Examples of weighting tools and rubrics are provided for both Speaking and Writing.

Chapter 4 describes how to design receptive skills assessment tasks (Listening/Reading). It covers choosing a task type, aligning the task to the CLB, ensuring the text and task are level appropriate, and appropriate question types for different levels.

Holmes, T., Habke, A., & Schmuck, S. (2005, 2017). Integrating CLB assessment into your ESL classroom. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks.

Available on Tutela. See Chapter 3 for short research summaries on the following assessment-related topics:

  • Classroom-based assessment (p. 98)
  • Feedback on spoken errors (p. 106)
  • Promoting grammatical accuracy in speaking (p. 108)

Kaskens, A., Light, J., & Peters, C. (2012). Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook. Toronto Catholic District School Board.

Included at this link are standards for online courses related to Assessment & Feedback. Each standard is hyperlinked to a page with explanation, references, and ideas for application.

OSCQR – SUNY Online Course Quality Review Rubric. (n.d.). Assessment & feedback.

This document lists principles for classroom assessment in five categories, including principles for the following:

  • Developing and choosing methods for assessment
  • Collecting assessment information
  • Judging and scoring student performance
  • Summarizing and interpreting results
  • Reporting assessment findings

It also includes principles for developing and using standardized assessment measures.

Waterloo Catholic District School Board. (2017). Principles for fair student assessment practices for education in Canada.

This guide discusses the benefits and challenges related to online assessment. It lists principles of effective assessment, along with strategies and recommendations for a variety of online assessments. Also included are case studies of online assessments.

Weleschuk, A., Dyjur, P., & Kelly, P. (2021). Online assessment in higher education. Taylor Institute for Teaching and Learning.

Designed for the use of Yale instructors, this web page describes good practices for obtaining feedback on and monitoring student learning. It gives examples and recommendations for the following:

  • Formative and summative assessments
  • Designing multiple choice questions
  • Creating and using rubrics
  • Creating online surveys
  • Blind grading

Yale Poorvu Center for Teaching and Learning. (2017). Feedback on student learning.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of BC (AMSSA). (2018). BC LINC guidelines.

Britton, E., & Austin, T. (2020). “That’s just how we say it”: Understanding L2 student writers’ responses to written and negotiated corrective feedback through critical incidents. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 103–127.

Brown, J. D. (2013) New ways of classroom assessment. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc.

Canals, L., Granena, G., Yilmaz, Y., & Malicka, A. (2020). Second language learners’ and teachers’ perceptions of delayed immediate corrective feedback in an asynchronous online setting: An exploratory study. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 181–209.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2019). FAQ 2019–2020. PBLA Practice Guidelines.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (n.d.). Developing a productive skills assessment task [Video].

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (n.d.). Developing a receptive skills assessment task [Video].

Chambers, W., Gnida, S., Messaros, C., Ilott, W., & Dawson, K. (2011). Setting and assessing outcomes. ATESL Adult ESL Curriculum Framework. ATESL.

Coombe, C. A., & Hubley, N. J. (Eds.). (2003). Assessment practices. Case Studies in TESOL Practice series. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL).

Davison, C., & Leung, C. (2009). Current issues in English language teacher-based assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 43(3), 393–415.

Desyatova, Y. (2018). “Batting the pinata and swallowing camels”: Teachers learn to PBLA in the absence of dialogic interaction. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 51–77.

Eckstein, G., Sims, M., & Rohm, L. (2020). Dynamic written corrective feedback among graduate students: The effects of feedback timing. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 78–102.

Edmonton Catholic School District LINC Program. (2019). Curriculum guidelines for CLB and literacy streams. (Working Document).

Freschi, A., & Cavalari, S. (2020). Corrective feedback and multimodality: Rethinking categories in telecollaborative learning. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 154–180.

Kartchava, E., & Mohamed, A. (2020). Investigating EAP teachers’ use and perceptions of gesture in general and in corrective feedback episodes. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 51–77.

Lang, J. M. (2013). Cheating lessons: Learning from academic dishonesty. Harvard University Press.

Lemak, A., & Valeo, A. (2020). Learner personality and response to oral corrective feedback in an English for Academic Purposes context. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 23–50.

Lira-Gonzales, M.-L., & Nassaji, H. (2020). The amount and usefulness of written corrective feedback across different educational contexts and levels. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 1–22.

Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind: Assessment for learning, assessment as learning, assessment of learning.

Nikouee, M., & Ranta, L. (2020). The visibility of oral corrective feedback research in teacher education textbooks. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 128–153.

Suh, E., & Shapiro, S. (2020). Making sense of resistance: How adult immigrant students pursue agency through identity work in higher educational contexts. TESL Canada Journal, 37(3), 27–46.

TESL Canada Federation. (2008, May). Ethical guidelines for the use of the ELP test.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2003). Standards for adult education ESL programs, Standard 6.

Woodworth, J., & Barkaoui, K. (2020). Perspectives on using automated writing evaluation systems to provide written corrective feedback in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 234–247.

Ziegler, N., Moranski, K., Smith, G., & Phung, H. (2020). Metacognitive instruction and interactional feedback in a computer-mediated environment. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 210–233.