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Appendix 2: References


This reference list includes references which are relevant to the document as a whole. It does not include those references listed in the "References and Further Reading" sections that are specific to particular themes.

Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language. (1995). Best practice guidelines for adult ESL/LINC programming and instruction in Alberta. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Author.

California Department of Education. (1992). English‐as‐a‐Second‐Language model standards for adult education programs. Adult Education Unit, California Department of Education. Retrieved May 01, 2009 from

Christison, M. A., & Stoller, F. L. (Eds.).  (1997). A handbook for language program administrators. Burlingame, CA: Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Commission on English Language Program Accreditation (CEA) (2008). CEA Standards for English language programs and institutions (last modified July 23,
2008). Retrieved July 7, 2009, from

Crabbe, D. (2003). The quality of language learning opportunities. TESOL Quarterly, 37(1), 9‐34.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (second edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. Asian EFL Journal, 7 (3) Article 1 (September 05). Retrieved May 15, 2009, from http://www.asianefl‐

Harrold, D. (1996). Accreditation/certification for adult ESL instructors in Canada: An overview. TESL Canada Journal, 13 (1), 37‐62. 

Maryland State Department of Education. (2003). Maryland adult ESL program standards. Retrieved May 01, 2009, from

MWB Educational Consultants, Inc. (n.d.). Best practice features of quality LINC programs. Prepared for the Ontario Region LINC Advisory Committee by MWB Educational Consultants Inc. Retrieved May 17, 2009, from (website last updated May 12, 2008).

NEAS Australia. (2006). AMEP manual: Standards and criteria for accreditation of providers of the adult migrant English program. North Sydney, Australia: Author. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from

NEAS Australia. (2008). Standards and criteria for ELT centres. North Sydney, Australia: Author. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from

Nunan, D. (2004). Task‐based language teaching. Cambridge University Press. 

Ontario Region LINC Advisory Committee, MWB Educational Consultants. (n.d.). Best practice features of quality LINC programs. Ontario: Author. Retrieved May 17, 2009, from (website last updated May 12, 2008).

Holmes, T., Kingwell, G., Pettis, J., & Pidlaski, M. (2001). Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: A guide to implementation. Alberta Learning and Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks.

Kreeft Peyton, J. (2005). Using the ESL program standards to evaluate and improve adult ESL programs. Washington, DC: Center for Adult English Language Acquisition at the Center for Applied Linguistics, May 2005. Retrieved June 4, 2009 from briefs/eslprogstandards.html

Languages Canada. (2009). Languages Canada quality assurance scheme: Standards and specifications. Revised March 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2009, from editation/accreditation

Languages Canada. (2009). Languages Canada quality assurance scheme: Preliminary review. Retrieved July 5, 2009, from

Languages Canada. (2009). Quality assurance scheme: Best practices in handling student requests. Retrieved July 5, 2009, from editation/accreditation

Manitoba Labour and Immigration – Adult Language Training Branch. (2009). Manitoba adult English as an additional language (EAL) curriculum framework foundations: 2009. Manitoba: Author. Retrieved May 5, 2009, from‐teacherscurriculum. html

Pawlikowska‐Smith, G. (2005). Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: English as a second language for adults. Ottawa, ON: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks.

Pawlikowska‐Smith, G. (2002). Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: Theoretical framework. Ottawa, ON: Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from p?page_id=257

Sivell, J. (2005). Second language teacher education in Canada: The development of professional standards. TESL‐EJ, September 2005, 9(2). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from http://teslej. org/ej34/a1.html

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2003). Standards for adult education ESL programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2008). Standards for ESL/EFL teachers of adults. Alexandria, VA: Author.

TESL Canada Federation. (December 2008). TESL Canada federation national professional certification standards. Canada: Author. Retrieved May 27, 2009, from

White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1998). Management in English language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.