References and PD Resources
This section includes resources that informed this section and resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.
This Best Practices webinar outlines the importance of lesson planning and provides tools to reinforce the principles.
TESL Ontario. (2019, July 14). Best practices JEN lesson planning [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voZvzZI2VXo
This framework guides program administrators, curriculum developers, and instructors as they develop curriculum to meet the needs of adult ESL literacy learners. It provides support for each of the stages of curriculum development:
- Understand needs
- Determine focus
- Set learning outcomes
- Integrate assessment
- Demonstrate accountability
Each stage includes guiding principles and a key issue in adult ESL literacy instruction and related guiding principles.
Bow Valley College. (2011). Learning for LIFE: An ESL literacy curriculum framework. https://globalaccess.bowvalleycollege.ca/sites/default/files/Curriculum_Framework.pdf
This document shows the Canadian descriptive scale of language ability in ESL. It describes a continuum of language ability across 12 benchmarks and 4 skills. It serves as a national standard for curriculum planning as well as a reference for teaching/learning, programming, and assessment.
On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access The CLB Bootcamp, a free 10-hour self-directed course orienting you to the CLB English as a Second Language for Adults framework. When completed (70% on each quiz, 420 minutes on the course), you will receive a certificate of completion.
Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012, October). Canadian Language Benchmarks: English as a second language for adults. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf
This document includes an orientation to the CLB document, using the CLB for classroom planning tools (needs assessment, lesson planning, assessment, and portfolios). It also addresses the following topics: incorporating grammar, pronunciation and pragmatics in CLB-based programs; multilevel classes, EAP and EWP classes; and working with special needs learners.
On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access Maximizing the CLB Support Kit, a free 1.5-hour self-directed course orienting you to the support kit.
Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). CLB support kit. http://en.copian.ca/library/learning/cclb/clb_support_kit_sect_1_part_1_2_3/clb_support_kit_sect_1_part_1_2_3.pdf
ESL for Adult Literacy Learners (ALL) is a benchmarking document designed specifically for adult ESL literacy learners.
This document can be downloaded for free from the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks website.
Part 1 addresses key issues related to ESL literacy instruction. For each of these topics, there is a table identifying a progression of skills, knowledge, and strategies in three stages: emerging, building, and expanding.
Part 2 is the benchmarking portion. It includes descriptions of 5 levels of ESL literacy Reading and ESL literacy Writing, relating each of these to the CLB benchmarks.
Part 3 is a continuum of ESL literacy skills, addressing 9 key strands of literacy development for Reading and Writing.
On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access a free 20-hour self-directed Orientation to the ESL for Adult Literacy Learners (ALL) document.
Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2016). ESL for adult literacy learners (ALL). https://www.language.ca/product/clb-esl-for-adult-literacy-learners-all-pdf-e/
This is a support kit for the CLB ESL for ALL benchmarking document. It includes approaches, strategies, and classroom examples related to using ESL for ALL to help with the following:
- Module/lesson planning
- Supporting learners in multilevel and mixed level classes
The last half of the document includes sample module plans, lesson plans, and activity handouts for each of the 5 levels of ESL literacy described in ESL for ALL, along with a sample digital literacy lesson plan.
At the end of the document are illustrative learner profiles for each level, aligned to the ESL for ALL continuum strands, and matched with teaching strategies.
The document can be downloaded for free from the Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks website.
On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access a free 5-hour online self-directed Orientation to the ESL for ALL Support Kit.
Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks (CCLB). (2017). CLB: ESL for ALL support kit. https://www.language.ca/resourcesexpertise/for-literacy/
This comparative framework contextualizes the Essential Skills (ES) framework within the context of language development and the Canadian Language Benchmarks. It is designed to support ESL instruction for learners who hope to join the workforce. It helps instructors and curriculum developers identify employment-related content for the classroom, as well as develop learning materials, assessments, and programs.
Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks & NorQuest College. (n.d.) Canadian Language Benchmarks-Essential Skills comparative framework. Working document. https://www.norquest.ca/NorquestCollege/media/pdf/about/research-and-innovation/research-projects-at-norquest/linc-works/comparative-framework-working-copy.pdf
This framework guides instructors and curriculum developers through the steps of curriculum development related to adult ESL programming.
Chambers, W., Gnida, S., Messaros, C., Ilott, W., & Dawson, K. (2011). ATESL adult ESL curriculum framework. ATESL. https://www.atesl.ca/resources/atesl-adult-esl-curriculum-framework/
The goal of this framework is to establish and promote high standards in the ELT industry, and to provide support to ELT centres in Australia. The document provides quality principles, quality drivers, examples, and action-focused questions in each of nine quality areas.
The quality principle most relevant to this section (Curriculum) is A1 (Course design supports quality learning outcomes).
NEAS. (2019). NEAS quality practice guide. https://neas.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Quality-Practice-Guide_2019-002.pdf
The website includes curriculum packages relevant to LINC/ESL programming. Create an account and sign in to Tutela. Search under the Resources or Collections tabs for curricula relevant to specific programs, topics, and levels.
Tutela. (2021). https://tutela.ca/PublicHomePage
The following are additional references that informed the best practices.
Albilehi, R., Han, J. Y., and Desmidt, H. (2012). Curriculum development 101: Lessons learned from a curriculum-design project. CATESOL Journal, 24(1). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111877.pdf
Auerbach, E. R. (1992). Making meaning, making change: Participatory curriculum development for adult ESL literacy. Center for Applied Linguistics. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED356688.pdf
Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Holmes, T., Kingwell, G., Pettis, J., & Pidlaski, M. (2001). Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000: A guide to implementation. Alberta Learning and Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks.
Languages Canada. (2022). Language Canada Quality Assurance Standard. https://www.languagescanada.ca/en/quality-assurance
Manitoba Labour and Immigration Adult Language Training Branch (2009). Manitoba adult English as an Additional Language (EAL) curriculum framework foundations: 2009 (3rd printing). https://immigratemanitoba.com/files/mb-curriculum-foundations-2009.pdf
Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, D. J., & Stewart, C. (2015). Blended learning for the adult education classroom. http://app.essentialed.com/resources/blended-learning-teachers-guide-web.pdf
Shebansky, W. (2018). Blended learning adoption in an ESL context: Obstacles and guidelines. TESL Canada Journal, 35(1), 52–77. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1295
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2003). Standards for adult education ESL programs, Standards 2 & 7.
White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1998). Management in English language teaching. Cambridge University Press.