References and PD Resources
This section includes resources that informed the best practices, and resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.
This 7-page article provides a rationale for Indigenization in the ESL classroom and suggestions for finding ways for ESL learners to engage in meaningful and transformative discussion of Indigenous topics.
Abe, A. (2017, August). Indigenization in the ESL classroom. TESL Ontario Contact. http://contact.teslontario.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Abe-Indigenization.pdf
This resource addresses four guidelines for including Indigenous perspectives in curriculum: relationships; language, cultural identity, and voice; experiences and worldviews; and ancestors, time, and place. Each guideline is explained and illustrated with quotes and video clips.
Alberta Education. (2015). Guiding voices: A curriculum development tool for inclusion of First Nation, Metis and Inuit perspectives throughout curriculum. http://www.learnalberta.ca/content/fnmigv/index.html
This article presents steps to follow when inviting Elders, Knowledge Keepers or cultural advisors to present or participate in events.
Alberta Teachers Association. (n.d.). Elder protocol. Stepping Stones: Walking Together Project. https://www.teachers.ab.ca/SiteCollectionDocuments/ATA/For%20Members/ProfessionalDevelopment/Walking%20Together/PD-WT-16g%20-%20Elder%20Protocol.pdf
This webpage includes links to separate guides for curriculum developers, instructors, administrators, and front-line staff in post-secondary institutions. Each guide can be read in an e-book format, or downloaded.
BCCampus. (2018). Pulling together: A guide for Indigenization of post-secondary institutions. https://bccampus.ca/projects/indigenization/
This document describes characteristics of Indigenous worldviews along with quotes from Indigenous participants illustrating those characteristics. It addresses implications for educational practice. Although the context is K–12, adult ESL instructors can gain insights from this document.
British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2015). Aboriginal worldviews and perspectives in the classroom. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/education/administration/kindergarten-to-grade-12/indigenous-education/awp_moving_forward.pdf
In this article, Stryker Calvez addresses decolonizing and Indigenizing academia.
Calvez, S. (n.d.). Indigenizing academia. University of Saskatchewan. https://teaching.usask.ca/articles/indigenizing-academia.php
This is a fact sheet on incorporating indigenous teaching practices into the curriculum.
Canadian Education Association. (n.d.). The facts on education: What is the best way to Indigenize teaching practices? https://www.edcan.ca/wp-content/uploads/cea_factsoned_indigenizeteaching2.pdf
This hub includes resources to support educational leaders in Alberta to deepen their foundational knowledge of Indigenous peoples. It includes voices and teachings of Elders and Knowledge Keepers related to the following:
- Identity and terminology related to Indigenous peoples in Canada
- Teachings (ways of knowing, being, and doing)
- Indigenous languages in Alberta, along with apps and resources for learning and revitalizing those languages
- Resources for learning from the land
- Treaties and agreements
- Laws and policies
College of Alberta School Superintendents (CASS). (2021). Guide to relationships and learning with the Indigenous peoples of Alberta. https://cassalberta.ca/indigenous-education/
This article is a call to instructors to change their culture of practice and indigenize the curriculum through dialoguing with Indigenous communities, place-based education, responding to injustice with inquiry-based learning, respecting the diversity of First Nations and Métis, and the courage to “start where you are with what you have” (Desjarlas, Métis scholar and community activitist, 2017).
Castellon, A. (2017). A call to personal research: Indigenizing your curriculum. Canadian Journal for Teacher Research, 5(28). https://www.academia.edu/39667268/A_Call_to_Personal_Research_Indigenizing_Your_Curriculum
This website includes information for educators about protocol and importance of offering tobacco as a respectful way of requesting for assistance from the Indigenous Elders or Knowledge Keepers.
Centre for Indigenous initiatives, Carlton University. (n.d.). Tobacco offering protocol. https://carleton.ca/indigenous/policies-procedures/tobacco-offering-protocol/
The author argues that education about Indigenous issues is not enough to mitigate the disconnect between immigrants and Indigenous peoples. He suggests a more critical approach that addresses those tensions between land and labour rights that continue to foster colonial capitalist nationalism.
Chatterjee, S. (2018). Teaching immigration for reconciliation: A pedagogical commitment with a Difference. Intersectionalities, 6(1), 1–15. https://journals.library.mun.ca/ojs/index.php/IJ/article/view/1867/1566
This 16-page article provides a rationale for including Indigenous voices in the ESL curriculum, along with the challenges of doing so and suggestions for best practices.
Cole, C. (2019, August). Towards a pedagogy for reconciliation-Indigenization: What it is and why it belongs in the ESL classroom. TESL Ontario Contact. http://contact.teslontario.org/towards-a-pedagogy-for-reconciliation-indigenization-what-it-is-and-why-it-belongs-in-the-esl-classroom/
This book of essays, reflections, and poetry addresses what it means for immigrants and refugees to live as treaty people. It is available for purchase at the link below.
Datta, R. (Ed.). (2019). Reconciliation in practice: A cross-cultural perspective. Fernwood Publishing. https://fernwoodpublishing.ca/book/reconciliation-in-practice
This infographic illustrates key concepts and practices for promoting Truth and Reconciliation in the classroom.
EdCan Network (n.d.) Truth and Reconciliation in your classroom. https://www.edcan.ca/wp-content/uploads/EdCan-Truth_andReconciliation_infographic-final-EN.pdf
This short and very accessible article addresses key principles and tools for addressing Indigenous content in the K–12 classroom.
Freeman, K., McDonald, S., & Morcom, L. (2018, April 24). Truth and Reconciliation in your classroom. EdCan Network Magazine. https://www.edcan.ca/articles/truth-reconciliation-classroom/
Based on a survey of 25 Indigenous academics and their allies, the authors describe Indigenization as a three-part spectrum: Indigenous inclusion, Reconciliation Indigenization, and Decolonial Indigenization. Post-secondary institutions focus primarily on Indigenous inclusion. The authors suggest two other approaches for more just educational institutions: “treaty-based decolonial indigenization” and “resurgence-based decolonial indigenization.”
Gaudry, A., & Lorenz, D. (2018). Indigenization as inclusion, reconciliation, and decolonization: Navigating the different visions for indigenizing the Canadian Academy. AlterNative, 14(3), 218–227. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1177180118785382
This paper explores the North American context of how the nations have been superimposed on Indigenous lands and peoples through colonization and domination. The author enourages readers to respond to the question, “Whose traditional land are you on?” as a way to decolonize countries and lives
Haig-Brown, C. (2009). Decolonizing diaspora: Whose traditional land are we on? Cultural and Pedagogical Inquiry, 1(1), 4–21. https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/cpi/index.php/cpi/article/view/7118/5827
This document provides assistance primarily to teachers and curriculum developers in Manitoba to integrate the Indigenous perspectives into curricula. It addresses culture and world view (the land, generosity, oral tradition, elders, and more), traditional Aboriginal education, and learning outcomes.
Manitoba Education and Youth. (2003). Integrating Aboriginal perspectives into curricula: A resource for curriculum developers, teachers and administrators. https://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/docs/policy/abpersp/ab_persp.pdf
This National Indigenous charitable organization promotes education, awareness and understanding of the Residential School system and the intergenerational trauma impacting the Indigenous peoples. The website Indigenous Roots and Hoots podcasts as well as videos from survivors of the Residential Schools.
Legacy of Hope Foundation (2020–2021). https://legacyofhope.ca/
This website provides a pedagogical framework for Aboriginal education in Australia based on 8 ways of learning: narrative-driven learning, visualised learning processes, hands-on/reflective techniques, use of symbols/metaphors, land-based learning, indirect/synergistic logic, modelled/scaffolded genre mastery, and connectedness to community. It also includes examples of best practice as applied in a variety of fields and settings.
NSW Department of Education. (n.d.). 8 Aboriginal ways of learning: Aboriginal pedagogy. https://www.8ways.online/
This paper presents a model with a set of entry points into the work of reconcialition: “listening and learning from Indigenous peoples; walking with and learning from Indigenous peoples; and, working with and learning from Indigenous peoples.” The reconcialiatory pedagogy envisions that reconciliation is possible when there is willingness to listen, learn, and take action.
Poitras Pratt, Y., & Danyluk, P. J. (2019). Exploring reconciliatory pedagogy and its possibilities through educator-led praxis. The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.5206/cjsotl-rcacea.2019.3.9479
In this article, the author outlines three principles of an emerging Indigenous research paradigm, referred to as “beadworking.”
Prete, T. (2019). Beadworking as an Indigenous research paradigm. Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal, 4(1) 28–67. https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/ari/index.php/ari/article/view/29419/21573
This 25-page article discusses the impact of an introduction to university course that incorporated the worldviews of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Peoples (FNIM) of Canada. The goal of the course was to support Indigenous learners emotionally and socially, using culturally responsive pedagogy.
Ragoonaden, K., & Mueller, L. (2017). Culturally responsive pedagogy: Indigenizing curriculum. Canadian Journal of Higher Education/Revue canadienne d’enseignement supérieur, 47(2), 22–46. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1154077.pdf
Includes a list of the calls to action from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). Calls to action. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/british-columbians-our-governments/indigenous-people/aboriginal-peoples-documents/calls_to_action_english2.pdf
A Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) offered by the Faculty of Native Studies at the University of Alberta.
University of Alberta (2020). Indigenous Canada. https://www.ualberta.ca/admissions-programs/online-courses/indigenous-canada/index.html
This paper highlights the 8 ways of learning as effective ways of teaching aboriginal language in schools.
Yunkaporta, T. (2009). Aboriginal pedagogies at the cultural interface [Doctoral thesis]. James Cook University. https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/10974/4/04Bookchapter.pdf