References and PD Resources
This section includes resources that informed the best practices and resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.
This course offers information and tips for LINC instructors and others who are offering services to LINC learners remotely. It includes videos, guides, and tools to assist instructors. Some of the topics covered include Internet connections, digital access and equity, and setting and maintaining boundaries. It covers online teaching, assessment, evaluation strategies, tips for integrating Avenue into your system, and onboarding ESL literacy learners.
Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of BC (AMSSA). (2021). Onboarding LINC learners remotely. https://institute.amssa.org/courses/onboarding-linc-learners
This open-access online textbook provides a framework for making pedagogical decisions around the use of technology in instruction. Each chapter is contextualized with a scenario. Some of the topics addressed include online instruction, MOOCs, technology in education, pedagogical differences in media, modes of delivery, ensuring quality teaching in a digital age, and more.
Bates, T. (2019). Teaching in a digital age: Guidelines for designing teaching and learning (2nd ed.). https://opentextbc.ca/teachinginadigitalage/
This document reports on a study (conducted pre-Covid) on barriers to online learning, especially among learners in rural or remote areas.
ABLE Research Consultants. (2020). Removing barriers to online learning through a teaching and learning lens. BCcampus. https://bccampus.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Report_Removing-Barriers-to-Online-Learning-Through-a-Teaching-and-Learning-Lens.pdf
This online textbook includes a discussion of the costs and benefits, design principles, and implementation of Hybrid-Flexible course design, along with examples of Hybrid-Flexible courses around the world.
Beatty, B. J. (2020). Hybrid-flexible course design: Implementing student-directed hybrid classes. EdTech Books. https://edtechbooks.org/hyflex
This framework describes proficiency levels for the following five digital competencies: information and data literacy, communication and collaboration, digital content creation, safety, and problem solving. Eight proficiency levels are described for each competency, and “I can” examples are given to illustrate some of these levels.
Carretero Gomez, S., Vuorikari, R., & Punie, Y. (2017). DigComp 2.1: The digital competence framework for citizens with eight proficiency levels and examples of use. European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/digcomp-21-digital-competence-framework-citizens-eight-proficiency-levels-and-examples-use
This framework addresses the digital competencies educators need for the following professional activities:
- Using digital technology for communication, collaboration, and professional development
- Sourcing, creating, and sharing digital resources
- Managing and orchestrating the use of digital technologies in teaching and learning
- Using digital technologies and strategies to enhance assessment
- Using digital technologies to enhance inclusion, personalization, and learners’ active engagement
- Enabling learners to creatively and responsibly use digital technologies for information, communication, content creation, wellbeing and problem solving
This document can be used for self-assessment, teacher training, and ongoing professional development.
Redecker, C., & Punie, Y. (2017). European Framework for the digital competence of educators: DigCompEdu. Publications Office of the European Union. https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-reports/european-framework-digital-competence-educators-digcompedu
This link provides a detailed description of the UDL guidelines.
CAST (n.d.). The UDL guidelines. https://udlguidelines.cast.org/
At the Remote Learning Resources link, you can access tutorials and articles for making accessible documents (Google docs, Word docs, slide shows, and PDFs). As well, you can access resources for planning online lessons that meet UDL guidelines.
CAST (n.d.). Remote learning resources. https://www.cast.org/products-services/covid19-remote-learning-resources
Contact North has free webinars by world experts on a variety of topics, including how to teach online. Past webinars are available for viewing and have presentation slides.
Contact North/Nord. (n.d.). Contact North webinars. https://teachonline.ca/webinars
This toolkit supports authors of open-access textbooks to ensure that their open educational resources (OER) are truly open and accessible. It discusses Universal Design for Learning and includes a description of differently abled “personas” who might access open educational resources. It also includes best practices for things such as organizing content, images, tables, font size, colour contrast, and more. Appendices include a checklist for accessibility, accommodation guidelines, a series of webinars, and a video on improving the accessibility of online courses. Although the toolkit is designed specifically for authors of open-access textbooks, the content is relevant for people designing online learning activities in general.
Coolidge, A., Doner, S., Robertson, T., & Gray, J. (2018). Accessibility toolkit (2nd ed.). BCcampus. https://opentextbc.ca/accessibilitytoolkit/
This document highlights the findings and implications of a study on the effects of blended learning for learning and teaching in LINC (Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada). Some of the major recurring themes that were elicited include:
- High levels of engagement and participation, improved attendance, high interest, and satisfaction.
- Increased use of English and ease in using English for settlement goals
- Enhanced access to technology and use of technology for learning
- Improved English language skills
- Improved opportunities for interaction; decreased sense of isolation
Cummings, J., Sturm, M., & Avram, A. (2019). The effects of blended learning in LINC: A LearnIT2teach demonstration project. New Language Solutions. https://learnit2teach.ca/wpnew/reports/Demo_Project_Evaluation_Report_WEB.pdf
This website includes “Best” website lists for ELL/ESL.
Ferlazzo, L. (2021). My best of series. https://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org/about/my-best-of-series/
Nathan Hall curates a list of webtools that are free, do not require students to submit an email address, are interactive, and are completely online.
Hall, N. (n.d.). Webtools: No registration needed for students. https://nathanghall.wordpress.com/webtools-no-registration-needed-for-students/
The author of this website and podcast connects users to a list of resources which are helpful in planning and creating online platforms using different tools such as podcasts, slides, etc.
Gonzalez, J. (n.d.). Technology. Cult of Pedagogy. https://www.cultofpedagogy.com/category/technology/
This ranks the top tools for learning based on the 14th Annual Learning Tools Survey (2020).
Hart, J. (2020). Top 200 tools for learning 2020. https://www.toptools4learning.com/
This curriculum resource on Digital Literacy helps LINC instructors to support students in overcoming barriers to using technology. The link includes a best practices document, an instructor manual, and short videos explaining how to maximize the use of smartboards, ePortfolio, digital cameras and video recorders in the classroom.
ISS of BC. (2021). Digital Literacy Curriculum Resources.https://digital-literacy.issbc.org/resources/
This link provides an annotated list 30 digital learning resources that are free and accessible.
Kaattari, J., & Toovey, C. (2020). Popular digital learning resources in Ontario’s literacy and basic skills programs. Community Literacy of Ontario. http://www.communityliteracyofontario.ca/wp/wp-content/uploads/Digital-Literacy-Resources-Annotated-Guide.pdf
The link provides information on designing accessible curriculum. It includes tutorials for making documents accessible.
National Center on Accessible Educational Materials (n.d.). Designing for Accessibility with POUR. https://aem.cast.org/about/new-educator-training.html
This link provides a segment on teaching adult learners and links to recorded webinars in different categories, including the area of technology.
National Geographic Learning. (n.d.). Webinars. https://webinars.eltngl.com/
This link includes a number of papers and presentations by Bonnie Nicholas on digital skills, digital citizenship, and digital tools are available at this link.
Nicholas, B. J. (2020, October 17). Planting seeds and nurturing growth: Creating a digital ecosystem for ELT. ATESL 2020 Conference. https://sites.google.com/site/bonniejeannicholas/presentations
This link includes a wide variety of workshops and certificate courses related to online learning.
Online Learning Consortium. (n.d.). https://my.onlinelearningconsortium.org/OLC/s/institute-schedule?id=a2n1U000000b3EC
This dashboard includes a list of standards for online courses in the following categories:
- Overview and information
- Technology and tools
- Design and layout
- Content and activities
- Assessment and feedback
Each standard is hyperlinked to a page with explanation, references, and ideas for application.
OSCQR – SUNY Online Course Quality Review Rubric. (n.d.). https://oscqr.suny.edu/
Pearson English Podcasts are talks by experts on current trends and innovations in education. Useful search terms include “technology”, “teaching online,” and “flipped learning.”
Pearson. (n.d.). Pearson English podcast. https://www.pearson.com/english/about/podcast.html
An educational technologist, Kathy Schrock has created a website with resources to help educators embed technology into their instruction. She includes resources in the following categories: assessment, creativity, devices, digital literacy, pedagogy, and professional growth.
Schrock, K. (n.d.). Kathy Schrock’s guide to everything. https://www.schrockguide.net/
This study explores the factors that influence ESL instructors adopting blended learning. Based on a survey and follow-up interviews, the factors that most influenced instructor take-up were the ability to quickly upload/download materials and the availability of professional development. Barriers to uptake included time constraints and lack of technological support.
Shebansky, W. (2018). Blended learning adoption in an ESL context: Obstacles and guidelines. TESL Canada Journal, 35(1), 52–77. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v35i1.1284
The TESL Ontario Blog project was created as a place where instructors could share resources, experiences, and tips for learning. Search the blog to learn from fellow ESL instructors about the resources they use, and their ideas and suggestions for technology and online learning in the classroom. Useful search terms include “Technology,” “Videos,” “Online learning,” and more.
Specifically, you may wish to search out the blogs contributed by John Allan related to online learning and digital project ideas. Search “John Allan” on the website or search specifically for the following topics:
- Student infographics
- Teach writing with a web design project (Mobile websites)
- Yes, You can! Making virtual tours
- Revisiting webquests
- Create learning objects quickly with Quizlet
- Teach verbs with animated GIFs and Quizlet
- Hitting the virtual road : a spin on the classic fieldtrip
- Enhance online learning with H5P’s interactive video tool
TESL Ontario Blog. http://blog.teslontario.org/
Tutela offers a wide variety of webinars, many of which are on topics related to technology and online teaching. To access the presentations, Sign into Tutela, and then
- Select Events & Webinars tab
- Select Past Events
- Search for relevant topics (e.g., H5P, Moodle basics, Online teaching, digital, etc.)
- Click on View to watch the video and access handouts.
Another option is to select the Collections tab, then select Digital Literacy Tools:
- For quick guides, scroll to Building Insructor Digital Literacy
- For webinars, scroll to Webinars.
Tutela. (2021). Events and webinars. https://tutela.ca/PublicHomePage
The goal of this website is to provide an international shared standard for web content accessibility. See the link to WCAG 2.1 at a Glance or the WCAG 2 checklist for an easy-to-access reference tool.
W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (2021). Web content accessibility guidelines (WCAG) overview. https://www.w3.org/WAI/standards-guidelines/wcag/
This book includes a selection of articles published by the digital journal Hybrid Pedagogy since 2011. It includes peer reviewed articles on the theory and practice of critical digital pedagogy, featuring a variety of voices from academic and non-academic cultures, as well as from a wide variety of underrepresented populations (including women, Black people, Indigenous people, disabled people, LGBTQ2S+ people, and others).
Stommel, J., Friend, C., Morris, S. M., Rorabaugh, P., Rheingold, H., Watters, A., Davidson, C., Steward, B., Benjamin, R. (2020). Critical digital pedagogy: A collection. Hybrid Pedagogy Inc. https://hybridpedagogy.org/critical-digital-pedagogy/
Following are additional articles of relevance to this topic.
Cambrian College Teaching & Learning Innovation Hub. (2020). HyFlex course development guide. https://teaching.cambriancollege.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/HyFlex-Course-Development-Guide.pdf
Karamifar, B., Germain-Rutherford, A., Heiser, S., Emke, M., Hopkins, J., Ernest, P., Stickler, U., & Hampel, R. (2019). Language teachers and their trajectories across technology-enhanced language teaching: Needs and beliefs of ESL/EFL teachers. TESL Canada Journal, 36(3), 55–81. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v36i3.1321
Peng, H., Sake, J., Lowie, W. (2021). A person-centred approach to L2 learners informal mobile language learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09588221.2020.1868532
Weleschuk, A., Dyjur, P., & Kelly, P. Online assessment in higher education. Taylor Institute for Teaching and Learning. https://taylorinstitute.ucalgary.ca/resources/online-assessment-in-higher-education
Yeh, E., & Swinehart, N. (2019). Social media for social inclusion: Barriers to participation in target-language online communities. TESL Canada Journal, 36(3), 154–172. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v36i3.1325