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References and PD Resources

for the Program

This section includes resources that informed this section, as well as resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.

This page contains information that guides individuals working on planning, program design, and administration.

Free Management Library. (n.d.). Program planning and management (business and nonprofit).

This page describes the Personal Information Protection Act (PIPA), Alberta’s private sector privacy laws related to how organizations collect, disclose, use, and protect information.

Government of Alberta. (2021). Personal Protection Information Act.

This guide provides information on copyright in Canada. It includes Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and a glossary.

Canadian Intellectual Property Office. (2019). A guide to copyright.

The goal of this framework is to establish and promote high standards in the ELT industry, and to provide support to ELT centres in Australia. The document outlines quality principles, quality drivers, examples, and action-focused questions in each of nine Quality Areas. The quality areas most relevant to this section (The Program) are:

B. The student experience

C. Administration, management, and staffing

E. Promotion and student recruitment

G. Strategy, risk and governance

NEAS Quality Assurance in Education and Training. (2019). NEAS Australia quality practice guide.

This Issue Brief outlines ways to address increased rigour in adult English language instruction and the changing landscape in instruction in order to meet program expectations and facilitate adult ELL success in today’s world. Further, it looks into program administrators’ support to heighten teachers’ expectations and maintain standards in adult ELL program instruction.

Parrish, B. (2015). Meeting the language needs of today’s adult English language learners: Issue brief. Literacy Information and Communication System.

This document presents the United Way of Toronto and York Region (UWTYR)’s program design and development practices which enable the organization to meet its commitments to the communities it serves. The document highlights reasons for carrying out program design and development, as follows:

  1. There is a need for the program.
  2. The proposed design meets the needs of the intended participants.
  3. The proposed program is effective;
  4. The program has been adapted appropriately to fit the context.
  5. The program is actually working for the participants.

The United Way Toronto and York Region (2016, May). Program design & development resources.

This page lists essential tools and practical solutions designed to address the challenges faced by a non-profit organization in recruitment, budget management, and other related concerns

Vid Cruiter. (2021). Recruiting volunteers in non-profit organizations can be challenging.

This paper highlights innovations in English language education that support the learning of language. It uses a well-established three-part framework to distinguish the main stages of project management related to innovation, and it concludes by identifying overall trends as areas for further study and development.

Waters, A. (n.d.). Managing innovation in English language education. Lancaster University, UK.

This handbook lists suggestions derived from lessons learned during extensive work with client organizations, supplemented by research. This handbook is not prescriptive but serves as a guide for senior leaders to apply new skills in their own organization.

Wells, D. (n.d). Strategic management for senior leaders: A handbook for implementation. Navy Total Quality Leadership Office.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Abbott, M. L., Lee, K. K., & Rossiter, M. J. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness and functionality of professional learning communities in adult ESL programs. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 1–25.

Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of BC (AMSSA). (2018). BC LINC guidelines.

Alberta Education, International Education Services Branch. (2010). Handbook for international education administrators.

Araf, M., Atkinson, J., Bourke, A., Ecker, E., Peters, M. A., Shearer, N., Vanderveken, J., Weerakoon, Y., & Zeldenrust, G. (2018). Language Instruction for Newcomers in Canada (LINC) program at Mohawk College. Exploring students’ experiences and transition to postsecondary education and employment.

Baril, L. (2011) Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC): Suggestions for improvements. [Unpublished master’s research paper]. Ryerson University.

Beatty, B. J. (2020). Hybrid-flexible course design: Implementing student-directed hybrid classes. Ed Tech Books.

Better Buildings Neighbourhood Program. (2012). Business model guide: Non-utility program administrator business model.

Cambrian College Teaching & Learning Innovation Hub. (2020). HyFlex course development guide.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). (2010). Evaluation of the Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC) program.

Davidson, J. O., & Tesh, J. S. (1997). Theory and practice in language program organization design. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 177–197). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Derwing, T. (2017). The ins and outs of ESL in Canada: How the past can inform the future. TESL Canada Journal, 34(2), 83–96.

Derwing, T., Diepenbroek, L., & Foote, J. (2009). A literature review of English language training in Canada and other English-speaking countries. A report prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Eaton, E. (2017). Perceptions of ESL program management in Canadian higher education: A qualitative case study. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 16(9), 13–28,

Elfers, A. M., & Stritikus, T. (2014). How school and district leaders support classroom teachers’ work with English language learners. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(2), 305–344.

Government of Canada. (2016). A leadership development framework for the Public Service of Canada.

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (2019). Designated learning institutions in Canada.

Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC). (2021). Learn about funding processes for settlement services.

Kaplan, R. B. (1997). An IEP is a many-splendored thing. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 3–21). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Klinghammer, S. J. (1997). The strategic planner. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 61–76). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Languages Canada. (2012). Languages Canada’s quality assurance framework.

Languages Canada. (2016). Languages Canada quality assurance scheme: Standards and specifications.

Languages Canada. (2016, March). Code of conduct.

Languages Canada. (2017). Accreditation handbook: Accreditation to the Languages Canada Quality Assurance Scheme.

Miller, B. D. (1997). Marketing principles for the language program administrator. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 309–312). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

NEAS Australia. (2008). Standards and criteria for ELT centres.

NEAS Australia. (2006, July). AMEP manual: Standards and criteria for accreditation of providers of the adult migrant English program.

Russell, F. A. and Von Esch, K. S. (2018, March 26). Teacher leadership to support English language learners. Phi Delta Kappan.

Staczek, J. J. (1997). The language program budget: Financial planning and management of resources. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 219–234). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Stoller, F. L. (1997). The catalyst for change and innovation. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 33–48). Alta Book Centre Publishers.

Taahyadin, F., & Daud, Y. (2018). Total quality management in school. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 20(6) 7–13.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2003). Standards for adult education ESL programs, Standards 1 & 4.

White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1998). Management in English language teaching. Cambridge University Press.