References and PD Resources
This section includes resources that informed this section and resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.
This guide helps LINC service providers to meet IRCC objectives and support learners with complex needs, including those with physical, learning, and mental health challenges, and those with literacy barriers. The guide provides strategies for both instructors and administrators for each of the following:
- Building Reflexivity
- Developing awareness of and addressing learner needs
- Empathic communication
Affiliation of Multicultural Societies and Service Agencies of BC (AMSSA). (2019). A principles-based approach to supporting LINC learners. https://www.amssa.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/A-Principles-based-Approach-to-Supporting-LINC-Learners-April-2019.pdf
This guide for educators includes scenarios that facilitate conversations meant to raise teachers’ awareness of responsible and ethical professional behaviour. For each scenario, instructors discuss questions related to issues, concerns, consequences, and actions for positive outcomes. Instructors relate the scenarios back to a professional code of responsibility to students and to the profession.
Although these scenarios are set in a K–12 context, similar scenarios and discussions could be developed and discussed for instructors of adults.
Connecticut State Department of Education. (2015, January). Ethical and professional dilemmas for educators: Understanding the code of professional responsibility for educators. https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SDE/TEAM/Module_5_Facilitator_Guide_January_2015.pdf?la=en
This document lists 25 good practices for working with volunteers, each supported by “voices from the field” and resources for further learning.
Decoda Literacy Solutions. (2012). Working with volunteers: 25 ideas for good practice. https://decoda.ca/wp-content/uploads/WorkingWithVolunteers_25Ideas-1.pdf
ESL Rural Routes provides professional development support and services for adult ESL providers and ESL programs in Alberta, with a focus on rural and small urban ESL providers. They provide a wide variety of workshops and training.
NorQuest College. (n.d.). ESL Rural Routes. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/home.aspx
Section II of this document describes ten characteristics of successful professional development programs.
Section III describes a framework for approaching PD, addressing five main areas (learning and the learner; teaching, learning and assessment; language ability; language knowledge and awareness; and professional development and values).
Galaczi, E., Nye, A., Poulter, M., & Allen, H. (2018). Cambridge Assessment English perspectives: Teacher professional development. UCLES. https://www.cambridgeenglish.org/Images/539683-perspectives-teacher-professional-development.pdf
This handbook was created for LINC and adult ESL instructors in government-funded language training programs in Ontario. It supports teachers in their professional learning for day-to-day teaching.
Chapter 2 of the handbook describes reflective practices and provides a series of tools for reflecting on teaching (e.g., useful language for collaboration, concept mapping, classroom observation tools, critical incident journals, teacher talk versus student talk, and more).
Chapter 3 includes literature summaries, where concepts from second language acquisition and TESL literature is applied to instruction, along with suggestions for reflecting on practice in light of the literature.
Chapter 4 includes practices and resources for CLB-based instruction, assessment, and program planning.
Kaskens, A., Light, J., & Peters, C. (2012). Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook. Toronto Catholic District School Board. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/getattachment/Resources/Content/Moving-Professional-Learning-to-Classroom-Practice/Instructor-Handbook.pdf.aspx
This guide provides a reflective model for developing PD partnerships with instructors in LINC and adult ESL programs. The PD process comprises the following steps:
- Select a focus
- Collect information
- Reflect on information
- Make a plan
- Return to class and experiment
- Reflect on results
The guide describes and illustrates effective communication strategies for PD partners.
This guide is available on Tutela.
Kaskens, A., & Peters, C. (2013). PD partner model implementation guide. Toronto Catholic District School Board.
The goal of this framework is to establish and promote high standards in the ELT industry, and provide support to ELT centres (in Australia). The document provides quality principles, quality drivers, examples, and action-focused questions in each of nine quality areas. The quality areas most relevant to this section (Staff) are
A. Administration, management, and staffing
I. ELT qualifications
NEAS. (2019). NEAS quality practice guide. https://neas.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Quality-Practice-Guide_2019-002.pdf
This substantial handbook provides training for tutors and volunteers working with adult ESL learners. It provides tips on working with adults, planning lessons, giving feedback, and teaching online. It also provides a series of detailed Learning Plans on a wide variety of topics to support the tutoring of adult ESL learners in Alberta. Each lesson plan includes a Tutor Tip relating the teaching plan to good practices in teaching ESL.
NorQuest College. (2020). Rural Routes: ESL tutor handbook. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/getattachment/Resources/Content/Rural-Routes-ESL-Tutor-Handbook/September30TutorHandbook.pdf.aspx
This page provides a set of ethical guidelines to ensure the integrity of ESL professionals. The guidelines address the conduct of ESL professionals related to their learners, their colleagues, and their profession.
TESL Canada. (2015). Ethical guidelines for English as a second language professionals. https://www.tesl.ca/about-us/by-laws-policies-disclaimers/ethics.html
With the aim of promoting excellence in the teaching and learning of English as a Second Language (ESL) across Canada, this manual describes three levels of professional certification standards that are recognized in all provinces.
TESL Canada. (2020). TESL Canada certification manual. https://www.tesl.ca/images/Membership/TESL_CANADA_INSTRUCTOR_CERTIFICATION_MANUAL_October_1_2020.pdf
Tutela offers a wide variety of professional development opportunities and webinars. To access the webinars, Sign into Tutela, and then:
- Select Events & Webinars tab
- Select Past Events
- Search for relevant topics
- Click on View to watch the video and access handouts.
Tutela. (2021). Events and webinars. https://tutela.ca/PublicHomePage
The following are additional references that informed the best practices.
Abbott, M. L., Lee, K. K., & Rossiter, M. J. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness and functionality of professional learning communities in adult ESL programs. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v35i2.1288
Alberta Teachers of English as a Second Language. (2007). Ethical guidelines for ESL professionals in Alberta. https://www.atesl.ca/resources/ethical-guidelines/
Altan, M. (2016). The need for more effective in-service training for professional development of English language teachers. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 15, 1–12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299551728_The_Need_for_More_Effective_In-service_Training_for_Professional_Development_of_English_Language_Teachers/citation/download
Araf, M., Atkinson, J., Bourke, A., Ecker, E., Peters, M. A., Shearer, N., Vanderveken, J., Weerakoon, Y., & Zeldenrust, G. (2018). Language Instruction for Newcomers in Canada (LINC) program at Mohawk College. Exploring students’ experiences and transition to postsecondary education and employment.
Brandon, J., Hollweck, T., Donlevy, J. K., & Whallen, C. (2018). Teacher supervision and evaluation challenges: Canadian perspectives on overall instructional leadership. Teachers and Teaching, 24(3), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2018.1425678
Center for Adult English Language Acquisition (CAELA) Network. (2008, April). Framework for quality professional development for practitioners working with adult English language learners. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505519.pdf
Christison, M. A. (1997). The L2 student advocate. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 143–159). Alta Book Centre Publishers.
Christison, M. A., & Stoller, F. L. (1997). Time management principles for language program administrators. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 235–250). Alta Book Centre Publishers.
Desyatova, Y. (2018). “Batting the pinata and swallowing camels”: Teachers learn to PBLA in the absence of dialogic interaction. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 51–77. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v35i2.1290
Durham, L. and Kim, S. (2018). Training dilemmas and recommendations with volunteer instructors in small, faith‐based adult ESL programs. TESOL Journal, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.374
Henry, A. R. (1997). The decision-maker and negotiator. In M. A. Christison, & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 77–90). Alta Book Centre Publishers.
Kushkiev, P. (2019, April). Compulsory professional development policy for ESL instructors: A literature review and personal insight. TESL Ontario Contact, 30–35. http://contact.teslontario.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Kushkiev-PD.pdf
Languages Canada. (2016). Languages Canada quality assurance scheme: Standards and specifications. https://www.languagescanada.ca/web/default/files/public/public/lcs01-lc-standards-specifications-march-2016.pdf
Languages Canada. (2016, March). Code of conduct. https://www.languagescanada.ca/web/default/files/public/LC_Code_of_Conduct_March_2016.pdf
Languages Canada. (2017). Accreditation handbook: Accreditation to the Languages Canada Quality Assurance Scheme. https://www.orioncan.com/usercontent/languages-canada-qa-scheme/lcg06-accreditation-manual_orion2017-_v1-july-2017.pdf
Languages Canada. (2018). LCS01 standards specifications. https://www.languagescanada.ca/en/quality-assurance
Pennington, M. C. (Ed.). (1991). Building better English language programs: Perspectives on evaluation in ESL. Association of International Educators.
Rodriguez, A. G., & McKay, S. (2010). Professional development for experienced teachers working with adult English language learners (CAELA Network Brief). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED540598.pdf
Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM). (2010). Onboarding new employees: Maximizing success.
Stoller, F. L. (1997). The catalyst for change and innovation. In M. A. Christison, & F. L. Stoller (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 33–48). Alta Book Centre Publishers.
White, R., Martin, M., Stimson, M., & Hodge, R. (1998). Management in English language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Witbeck, M., & Healey, D. (1997). Technology and the language program administrator. In M. A. Christison & F. L. Stoller, (Eds.), A handbook for language program administrators (pp. 253–273). Alta Book Centre Publishers.
Yazan, B. (2018). TESL teacher educators’ professional self-development, identity, and agency. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 140–155. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1315