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References and PD Resources

for Instruction

This section includes resources that informed this section and resources (academic articles, websites, videos, tutorials, courses, etc.) for professional development and further learning on this topic.

This document is the Canadian descriptive scale of language ability in ESL. It describes a continuum of language ability across 12 benchmarks and 4 skills. It serves as a national standard for curriculum planning as well as a reference for teaching/learning, programming, and assessment.

Note: On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access The CLB Bootcamp, a free 10-hour self-directed course orienting you to the CLB English as a Second Language for Adults framework. When completed (70% on each quiz, 420 minutes on the course), you will receive a certificate of completion.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2012). Canadian Language Benchmarks: English as a second language for adults. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/pdf/pub/language-benchmarks.pdf

This document includes an orientation to the CLB document, using the CLB for classroom planning (needs assessment, lesson planning, assessment, and portfolios), classroom planning tools. It also addresses the following topics: incorporating grammar, pronunciation and pragmatics in CLB-based programs; multilevel classes, EAP and EWP classes, and special needs learners.

Note: On the Canadian Language Benchmarks’ eLearning portal, you can access Maximizing the CLB Support Kit, a free 1.5-hour self-directed course orienting you to the support kit. It covers the following topics: orientation to the CLB, using the exemplars, using the support kit for planning, and using the support kit for assessment. When completed (70% on each quiz, 420 minutes on the course), you will receive a certificate of completion.

This new version of the PBLA Guidelines replaces 2014 and 2017 documents. This is an electronic platform includes detailed resources related to

  • Portfolios: This section includes required components, expectations, feedback and assessments, and portfolio artefacts. It also includes sample forms, inventory sheets, and considerations for multilevel classes.
  • Reporting: This section includes making judgments about portfolio contents, learner progress reports, reporting periods, and a variety of reporting forms.
  • Accountability: This section includes administrator tips for supporting PBLA implementation.
  • Resources: This section includes a series of multilevel module plans that include skill-building activities, skill-using activities, and PBLA Assessement tasks. Also included is a list of PBLA training courses.

Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. (2019). PBLA practice guidelines. https://pblapg.language.ca/

Download the document from Tutela.ca.

See Chapter 3 for a series of short research summaries on the following topics:

  • Authentic materials in the ESL classroom (p.88)
  • Autonomy for language learners (p.93)
  • Classroom-based assessment (p.98)
  • Communicative language teaching (p.102)
  • Feedback on spoken errors (p.106)
  • Promoting grammatical accuracy in speaking (p.108)
  • Multilevel ESL classes (p.111)
  • Pragmatics in the ESL classroom (p.115)
  • Pronunciation (p.118)
  • Task-based language teaching (TBLT) (p.122)

Kaskens, A., Light, J., & Peters, C. (2012). Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook. Toronto Catholic District School Board. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/getattachment/Resources/Content/Moving-Professional-Learning-to-Classroom-Practice/Instructor-Handbook.pdf.aspx

This Best Practices webinar addresses how to incorporate pragmatics into adult language learning. This webinar is recorded and available in TESL Ontario Best Practices archives.

TESL Ontario. (2019, January 14). Pragmatics in the ALL classroom [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jg0mvTX1XxI

This Best Practices webinar outlines the importance of lesson planning and provides an overview of useful tools. This webinar is recorded and available in TESL Ontario Best Practices archives.

TESL Ontario. (2019, July 14). Best practices JEN lesson planning [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voZvzZI2VXo

This is one of 6 online learning modules on a course in Teaching and Learning in Higher education. It includes learning activities, resources, and a reference page on each of the following topics:

  • Models of inclusive and intercultural education
  • Communication in the Intercultural Classroom
  • Teaching in the intercultural classroom (the skills of an interculturally competent teacher).
  • Interculturalizing the curriculum, including critical analysis questions to ask regarding your own curriculum.

Queens University. (n.d.). Globalization of learning module. http://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/globalization/index.html

Use tools to assess the readability of learner texts:

  • Use the readabilily tool in Microsoft Word (Go to File, Options, Proofing. Select Show readability statistics).
  • Find a readability formula here: https://readabilityformulas.com/
  • Use https://wordsift.org/ to create word clouds of your texts. These word clouds identify words based on how common or rare they are, or whether they are on the academic word list. The tool also provides statistics related to the readability of your text.

Paste your text into one of the Vocab Profilers at the link below. Results identify the percentages of K1, K2, AWL, and Off List words in your text, as well as sort all the words into those categories.

Paste your text into the KeyWords extractor. Results identify the keywords in your text (i.e., words that are more frequent in this text than they are in the general corpus).

Lextutor. (n.d.). Vocab profiler and keywords extractor [Computer software]. https://lextutor.ca/

Tutela offers a wide variety of webinars on topics related to instruction. To access the webinars, Sign into Tutela, and then

  • Select Events & Webinars tab
  • Select Past Events
  • Search for relevant topics
  • Click on View to watch the video and access handouts.

Tutela. (2021). Events and webinars. https://tutela.ca/PublicHomePage

Following is a list of freely available peer-reviewed professional journals for ESL professionals and researchers.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Abbott, M. L., Lee, K. K., & Rossiter, M. J. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness and functionality of professional learning communities in adult ESL programs. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v35i2.1288

Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D., & Snow, M. A. (Eds.). (2016). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed.). National Geographic Learning.

Derwing, T., Diepenbroek, L., & Foote, J. (2009). A literature review of English language training in Canada and other English-speaking countries. A report prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada.

Ellis, R. (2005, September). Principles of instructed language learning. Asian EFL Journal, 7(3). https://www.asian-efl-journal.com/main-editions-new/principles-of-instructed-language-learning/

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Hinkel, E. (2006). Current perspectives on teaching the four skills. TESOL Quarterly 40(1), 109–131.

Karamifar, B., Germain-Rutherford, A., Heiser, S., Emke, M., Hopkins, J., Ernest, P., Stickler, U., & Hampel, R. (2019). Language Teachers and Their Trajectories Across Technology-Enhanced Language Teaching: Needs and Beliefs of ESL/EFL Teachers. TESL Canada Journal, 36(3), 55 - 81. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v36i3.1321

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (2003). Standards for adult education ESL programs, Standard 3.

Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Yeh, E., & Swinehart, N. (2019). Social Media for Social Inclusion: Barriers to Participation in Target-Language Online Communities. TESL Canada Journal, 36(3), 154 - 172. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v36i3.1325

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Anderson, N. J. (2009). ACTIVE reading: The research base for a pedagogical approach in the reading classroom. In Z. H. Han & N. J. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 117–143). University of Michigan Press.

Anderson, N. J. (2014). Developing engaged second language readers. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 170–188). National Geographic Learning.

Chang, A. C., & Read, J. (2006). The effects of listening support on the listening performance of EFL learners. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 375–397.

Chen, A. H. (2009, June). Listening strategy instruction: Exploring Taiwanese college students’ strategy development. Asian EFL Journal, 11(2). https://www.asian-efl-journal.com/main-editions-new/listening-strategy-instruction-exploring-taiwanese-college-students-strategy-development/

Chong, S. W. (2017). A three-stage model for implementing focused written corrective feedback. TESL Canada Journal, 34(2), 71–82. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v34i2.1267

Dörnyei, Z. (2014). Motivation in second language learning. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 518–531). National Geographic Learning.

Frodesen, J. (2014). Grammar in second language writing. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 238–253). National Geographic Learning.

Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). Learners’ listening comprehension difficulties in English language learning: A literature review. English Language Teaching, 9, 123–133. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/view/59636

Gnida, S. (2012). Communicative language teaching. In A. Kaskens, J. Light, & C. Peters, Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook (pp. 102–105). Toronto Catholic District School Board.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2014). Teaching reading for academic purposes. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 189–205). National Geographic Learning.

Han, Z. H., & D’Angelo, A. (2009). Balancing between comprehension and acquisition: Proposing a dual approach. In Z. H. Han, & N. J. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 173-191). University of Michigan Press.

Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching (4th ed.). Pearson.

Khatri, R. (2018). The efficacy of academic reading strategy instruction among adult English as an additional language students: A professional development opportunity through action research. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 78–103. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v35i2.1291

Leow, R. P. (2009). Modifying the L2 reading text for improved comprehension and acquisition: Does it work? In Z. H. Han, & N. J. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 83–99). University of Michigan Press.

Nation, I. S. P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL reading and writing. Routledge.

Noji, F., Ford, S., & Silva, A. (2009). Purposeful reading. In R. Cohen (Ed.), Explorations in second language reading (pp. 7–24). Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL).

Schmitt, N., Jiang, X., & Grabe, W. (2011). The percentage of words known in a text and reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal, 95(1), 26–43.

Scrivener, J. (2011). Learning teaching: The essential guide to English language teaching (3rd ed.). MacMillan.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Bartel, J. (2018). Teaching soft skills for employability. TESL Canada Journal, 35(1), 78–92. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1297/1127

Bohlke, D. (2014). Fluency-oriented second language teaching. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. Brinton, and M. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp.121–135). National Geographic Learning.

Britton, E., & Austin, T. (2020). “That’s just how we say it”: Understanding L2 student writers’ responses to written and negotiated corrective feedback through critical incidents. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 103–127. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v37i2.1332

Canals, L., Granena, G., Yilmaz, Y., & Malicka, A. (2020). Second language learners’ and teachers’ perceptions of delayed immediate corrective feedback in an asynchronous online setting: An exploratory study. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 181–209. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v37i2.1336

Diepenbroek, L. G., & Derwing, T. C. (2013). To what extent do popular ESL textbooks incorporate oral fluency and pragmatic development? TESL Canada Journal, 30(Special Issue 7), 1–20. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1149/969

Eckstein, G., Sims, M., & Rohm, L. (2020). Dynamic written corrective feedback among graduate students: The effects of feedback timing. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 78–102. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v37i2.1339

Flowerdew, J., & Miller, L. (2014). Dimensions of academic listening. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 90–105). National Geographic Learning.

Folse, K. S. (2006). The art of teaching speaking: Research and pedagogy for the ESL/EFL classroom. University of Michigan Press.

Glass, M. (2013). Teaching strategies to get the tone right: Making requests and gaining compliance. TESL Canada Journal, 30(7), 125–134. http://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1156.

Goh, C. C. M. (2014). Second language listening comprehension: Process and pedagogy. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp.72–89). National Geographic Learning.

Ishihara, N. (2013). Is it rude language? Children learning pragmatics through visual narratives. TESL Canada Journal, 30(Special Issue 7), 135–149. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1157/976

Kim, Y. J., & McDonough, K. (2011). Using pretask modelling to encourage collaborative learning opportunities. Language Teaching Research, 15(2), 183–199.

Kondo, S. (2010). Apologies: Raising learners' cross-cultural awareness. In A. Martinez-Flor & E. Uso-Juan (Eds.), Speech acts performance: Theoretical, empirical and methodological issues (pp. 145–162). John Benjamins.

Lazaraton, A. (2014). Second language speaking. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. Brinton, and M. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp.106–120. National Geographic Learning

Leopold, L. (2016). Honing EAP learners’ public speaking skills by analyzing TED talks. TESL Canada Journal, 33(2), 46–58. http://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1236

Light, J., & Ranta, L. (2016). Where good pedagogical ideas come from: The story of an EAP task. TESL Canada Journal, 33(2), 59–68. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v33i2.1237

Lira-Gonzales, M.-L., & Nassaji, H. (2020). The amount and usefulness of written corrective feedback across different educational contexts and levels. TESL Canada Journal, 37(2), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v37i2.1333

Louw, K., & Abe, Y. (2016, June). Pragmatics: When the unwritten rules of language break down. TESOL Connections. http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/tesolc/issues/2016-07-01/2.html

Miller, J. C. (2010). Listening and speaking activities for adult ESL learners. Colorado Department of Education: Adult Education & Family Literacy. http://www.cal.org/adultspeak/pdfs/instructional-activity-packet.pdf

Nation, I. S. P. (2009). Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking. Routledge.

O’Connell, S. P. (2014). A task-based language teaching approach to the police traffic stop. TESL Canada Journal, 31(8), 116. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v31i0.1189

Olshtain, E. (2014). Practical tasks for mastering the mechanics of writing and going just beyond. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. Brinton, & M. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 208–221). National Geographic Learning.

Ranta, L. (2012). Feedback on spoken errors. In A. Kaskens, J. Light, & C. Peters (Eds.), Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook, (pp.106–107). Toronto Catholic District School Board. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/getattachment/Resources/Content/Moving-Professional-Learning-to-Classroom-Practice/Instructor-Handbook.pdf.aspx

Rossiter, M. J., Derwing, T. M., Manimtim, L. G., & Thomson, R. I. (2010). Oral fluency: The neglected component in the communicative language classroom. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 66(4), 583–606.

Scrivener, J. (2011). Learning teaching: The essential guide to English language teaching (3rd ed.). Macmillan.

TESL Ontario. (2019, January 14). Pragmatics in the ALL classroom [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jg0mvTX1XxI

Vandergrift, L., & Goh, C. C. M. (2012). Teaching and learning second language listening. Routledge.

Weigle, S. C. (2014). Considerations for teaching second language writing. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 222–237). National Geographic Learning.

Zaviolova, A. (2017). An emerging pedagogical approach to teaching pragmatic formulas. TESL Canada Journal 34(3), 192-204. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1279/1114

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Balcom, P., & Bouffard, P. (2015). The effect of input flooding and explicit instruction on learning adverb placement in L3 French. The Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 1–27. https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/CJAL/article/viewFile/20186/28012

Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 83–107.

Ellis, R. (2014). Principles of instructed second language learning. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 31-45). National Geographic Learning.

Ellis, R. (2017). Oral corrective feedback in L2 classrooms: What we know so far. In H. Nassaji & E. Kartchava (Eds.), Corrective feedback in second language teaching and learning (pp. 3–18). Routledge.

Larson-Freeman, D. (2014). Teaching grammar. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp. 256-270. National Geographic Learning.

Long, M. H. (1988). Focus on form in task-based language teaching. University of Hawai’i Working Papers in ESL, 16(2). https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/40789/1/Long%20(1998)_WP16(2).pdf

Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66.

Poole, A. (2004). Focus on form instruction: Foundations, applications and criticisms. The Reading Matrix 5(1), 47–56.

Ranta, L. (2012). Promoting grammatical accuracy in speaking. In A. Kaskens, J. Light, & C. Peters (Eds.), Moving professional learning to classroom practice: An instructor handbook, (pp.106–107). Toronto Catholic District School Board. https://eslruralroutes.norquest.ca/getattachment/Resources/Content/Moving-Professional-Learning-to-Classroom-Practice/Instructor-Handbook.pdf.aspx

Ranta, L., & Lyster, R. (2018). Form-focused instruction. In P. Garrett & J. M. Cots (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language awareness (pp. 40–56). Routledge.

Scrivener, J. (2010). Teaching English grammar: What to teach and how to teach it. Macmillan.

Sheen, R. (2002). ‘Focus on form’ and ‘focus on forms’. ELT Journal 56(3), 303–305. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.3.303

Spada, N., & Lightbrown, P. M. (2008). Form-focused instruction: Isolated or integrated? TESOL Quarterly, 42(2), 181–207.

Swan, M. (2017). Practical English usage. Oxford University Press.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Baker, A., & Goldstein, S. (2007). Pronunciation pairs: An introduction to the sounds of English. Cambridge University Press.

Bjerke, L. (2008). Accent on Canadian English: A pronunciation program for speakers of English as a second language. Optima Communications.

Brown, A. (1988). Functional load and the teaching of pronunciation. TESOL Quarterly, 22(4), 593–606.

Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (1996). Teaching pronunciation: A reference for teachers of English to speakers of other languages. Cambridge University Press.

Chan, M. (1987). Phrase by phrase. Prentice Hall Regents.

Checklin, M. (2012). What in the world do we know about word stress? A review of what it is and how to teach it. TESOL in Context Special Edition, 3, 379–397. https://tesol.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/TiC_S3_martin_checklin.pdf

Couper, G. (2003). The value of an explicit pronunciation syllabus in ESOL teaching. Prospect, 18(3), 53–70. http://www.ameprc.mq.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0015/230046/18_3_4_Couper.pdf

Couper, G. (2006). The short and long-term effects of pronunciation instruction. Prospect, 21, 46–66. http://www.ameprc.mq.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/229831/21_1_3_Couper.pdf

Dauer, R. M. (1993). Accurate English: A complete course in pronunciation. Allyn & Bacon.

Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2005). Second language accent and pronunciation teaching: A research-based approach. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 379–398.

Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2009). Putting accent in its place: Rethinking obstacles to communication. Language Teaching, 42(4), 476–490.

Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Wiebe, G. E. (1998). Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation instruction. Language Learning, 48, 393–410.

Field, J. (2005). Intelligibility and the listener: The role of lexical stress. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 399–424.

Firth, S. (1992). Pronunciation syllabus design: A question of focus. In P. Avery & S. Ehrlich (Eds.), Teaching American English pronunciation (pp. 173–183). Oxford University Press.

Goodwin, J. (2001). Teaching pronunciation. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Heinle & Heinle.

Grant, L. (1999, December). Form to meaning: Bridges in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Matters, 9, 64.

Grant, L. (2001). Well said: Pronunciation for clear communication. Heinle & Heinle.

Grant, L., & Brinton, D. (2014). Pronunciation myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. University of Michigan Press.

Handschuh, J., & Simounet-Géigel, A. (1985). Improving oral communication. Prentice Hall.

Lane, L. L. (2016). Focus on pronunciation: Principles and practice for effective communication. Longman.

Levis, J. M. (2005). Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 369–378.

Levis, J. M. (Ed.). (2005). Reconceptualizing pronunciation in TESOL: Intelligibility, identity and world Englishes. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3).

Live and Learn. (2016, January 27). Online resources to improve English pronunciation. https://livelearn.ca/article/language-training/online-resources-to-improve-english-pronunciation/

Mojsin, L. (2009). Mastering the American accent. Barron’s Educational Series.

Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2006). The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34, 520–531.

Pourhosein Gilakjani, A., & Sabouri, N. B. (2017). Advantages of using computer in teaching English pronunciation. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(3), 78–85.

Wong, C. S. P. (2016). Teaching speaking. In H. P. Widodo, & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), English Language teaching today: Linking theory and practice (pp. 241–255). Springer International.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Clark, J., & Trofimovich, P. (2016). L2 vocabulary teaching with student- and teacher-generated gestures: A classroom perspective. TESL Canada Journal, 34(1), 1–24. http://www.teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1253

Cobb, T. (n.d.). Concordancers. The Compleat Lexical Tutor [Computer software]. https://www.lextutor.ca/conc/

Davies, M. (2008). The corpus of contemporary American English (COCA): 520 Million Words, 1990–2015. http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

Douglas, S. R. (2015). The relationship between lexical frequency profiling measures and rater judgements of spoken and written general English language proficiency on the CELPIP-General test. TESL Canada Journal, 32(9), 43–64. http://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1217/1042

Folse, K. S. (2004). Vocabulary myths: Applying second language research to classroom teaching. University of Michigan Press.

Hatami, S. (2015). Teaching formulaic sequences in the ESL classroom. TESOL Journal, 6(1), 112–129.

Horst, M. (2009). Developing definitional vocabulary knowledge and lexical access speed through extensive reading. In Z. H. Han & N. J. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 40–64). University of Michigan Press.

Kim, Y. (2006). Effects of input elaboration on vocabulary acquisition through reading by Korean learners of English as a foreign language. TESOL Quarterly 40(2), 341–370.

Kirby, J., & Bowers, P. (2012, June). Morphology works. What works? Research into practice. http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesLIT/ProfessionalLearning/2013/WW_Morphology.pdf

LaScotte, D. (2020). Leveraging listening texts in vocabulary acquisition for low-literate learners. TESL Canada Journal, 37(1), 76–89. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v37i1.1330

Lee, S. H., & Muncie, J. (2006). From receptive to productive: Improving ESL learners’ use of vocabulary in a postreading composition task. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 295–316.

Lessard-Clouston, M. (2012/2013). Word lists for vocabulary learning and teaching. The CATESOL Journal, 24(1), 287–304.

Macis, M., & Schmitt, N. (2017). The figurative and polysemous nature of collocations and their place in ELT. ELT Journal, 71(1), 50–59.

McGuire, M., & Larson-Hall, J. (2018). Teaching formulaic sequences in the classroom: effects on sp­oken fluency. TESL Canada Journal, 34(3), 1–25. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v34i3.1271

McLean, S., & Kramer, B. (2015). The creation of a new vocabulary levels test. Shiken, 19(2), 1–11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284029487_McLean_S_Kramer_B_2015_The_Creation_of_a_New_Vocabulary_Levels_Test_Shiken_192_1-11

Murray, L. (2018). A study in enhancing L2 learners’ utility with written academic formulaic sequences. TESL Canada Journal, 34(3), 76–92. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v34i3.1274

Nam, J. (2010). Linking research and practice: Effective strategies for teaching vocabulary in the ESL classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 28(1), 127–135. http://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1064

Nation, I. S. P. (2013). Learning vocabulary in another language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Nation, I. S. P., & Gu, P. Y (2007). Focus on vocabulary. Macquairie University, National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Pulido, D. (2009). Vocabulary processing and acquisition through reading: Evidence for the rich getting richer. In Z. H. Han & N. J. Anderson (Eds.), Second language reading research and instruction: Crossing the boundaries (pp. 65-82). University of Michigan Press.

Rossiter, M. J., Abbott, M. L., & Kushnir, A. (2016). L2 vocabulary research and instructional practices: Where are the gaps? TESL-EJ, 20(1), 1–25.

Sasao, Y., & Webb, S. (2017). The Word Parts Levels Test. Language Teaching Research, 21(1), 12–30. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1362168815586083#:~:text=The%20Word%20Part%20Levels%20Test%20(WPLT)%20was%20developed%20to%20measure,the%20syntactic%20properties%20of%20affixes).

Schmitt, N. (2008). Instructed second language vocabulary learning. Language Teaching Research, 12(3), 329–363.

Schmitt, N., & Schmitt, D. (2014). A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching. Language Teaching, 47(4), 484–503.

Scrivener, J. (2011). Learning teaching: The essential guide to English language teaching (3rd ed.). Macmillan.

Zeh, N. (2017). Teaching morphology to improve literacy: A guide for teachers. https://www.uwo.ca/fhs/lwm/teaching/dld2_2017_18/Zeh_Morphological-Awareness.pdf

Zimmerman, C. B. (2014). Teaching and learning vocabulary for second language learners. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton, & M. A. Snow (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (4th ed., pp.288–302. National Geographic Learning.

The following are additional references that informed the best practices.

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (n.d.) Intercultural knowledge and competence value rubric. https://manoa.hawaii.edu/assessment/resources/rubrics/InterculturalKnowledge_value.pdf

Deardorf, D. K. (2009). Exploring interculturally competent teaching in social sciences classrooms. Enhancing Learning in the Social Sciences, 2(1), 1–18. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.11120/elss.2009.02010002

Deardorff, D. K. (2015, November). A 21st century imperative: Integrating intercultural competence in tuning. Tuning Journal for Higher Education, 3(1), 137–147.

Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence Intercultural Communication Centre, Carnegie Mellon University. (n.d.). Teaching in an increasingly multi-cultural setting: A guide for faculty: Recognizing and addressing cultural variations in the classroom. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/PublicationsArchives/InternalReports/culturalvariations.pdf

Galante, A. (2014). Developing EAL learners’ intercultural sensitivity through a digital literacy project. TESL Canada Journal, 32(1), 53–66. https://teslcanadajournal.ca/index.php/tesl/article/view/1199/1019

Gorski, P. C. (2008). Good intentions are not enough: A decolonizing intercultural education. Intercultural Education, 19(6), 515–525.

Kisch, M. (2014). Helping faculty teach international students. International Educator, 23(6), 44–47. https://counselingcenter.ecu.edu/wp-content/pv-uploads/sites/180/2020/05/TeachingInternationalStudents.pdf

Louw, K., & Abe, Y. (2016, July). Pragmatics: When the unwritten rules of language break down. TESOL Connections. http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/tesolc/issues/2016-07-01/2.html

MacGregor, A., & Folinazzo, G. (2017). Best practices in teaching international students in higher education: Issues and Strategies. TESOL Journal, 9(2), 299–329. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesj.324

Perez, R. J., Shim, W., King, P. M., & Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2015). Refining King and Baxter Magolda’s Model of Intercultural Maturity. Journal of College Student Development, 56(8), 759–776.